Friday, March 23, 2018

Ramaphosa and the EFF's dodgy land stats

Ramaphosa and the EFF's dodgy land stats.

Tuesday, March 20, 2018

THE USELESSNESS OF POST - 94 SOUTH AFRICAN EDUCATION.

#WILLDERNESSPIECE. VI

THE USELESSNESS OF POST - 94 SOUTH AFRICAN EDUCATION. ESPECIALLY FOR BLACKS.

Image may contain: one or more people, sky, house, outdoor and natureThere is an illusion that is embedded in the minds of many [black] South Africans who do not know any better. That, without the ANC, we would still be stuck with the unshakeable, rusty chains of Bantu Education.

Bantu Education, which, as we know, was designed to give blacks an education that was of inferior quality to that of their white counterparts.

Yet, as evil and racist this Bantu Education [together with Missionary schooling] was; it managed to yield a very successful black middle class that consisted of formidable doctors, lawyers, judges, business owners, academics, writers, musicians, teachers, nurses, and clerks.

This success was so apparent that in the 1980’s [The proportion of black students progressing at universities was higher in the 1980s than it was in 2017]; we had the highest number of black university graduates who not only managed to get jobs after graduating.

They also managed to secure prestigious scholarships in Western [overseas] universities to advance not only their education, but also their careers.

[Today, black university students are barely finishing university; mostly due to difficulties with comprehending university material, English, finances and general socio-economic disparities which impair many on campuses].

It was this era of [Pre-94] education that produced the likes of Nelson Mandela, Oliver Tambo, Steve Biko, Patrice Mostepe, Cyril Ramaphosa and Thabo Mbeki.

Then the miracle of 1994 finally arrives. The ANC enters government and institutes education policies that not only pretended to advance black people. But indeed crippled them every step of the way, with the sole intent of producing a sterile populace that is totally incapable of doing anything other than to consume social welfare, debt, and government failure.

With a youth unemployment rate that is gradually reaching 60%, one would expect that the road to Bulawayo was not as easy and delightfully pursued [by the ANC through its ill-fated policies].

A 2017 study revealed that over 70% of Grade 4
learners cannot read. In 10 years, they will be eligible voters whose sole understanding of good governance will be measured by being broke, illiterate and unemployed.

Especially when about 70% of South African youth [20 million people] are more likely to be victims and perpetrators of assault, robbery and property theft than adults [35 years and above].

With no plan or budget; criminal mastermind – President Jacob Zuma – announced that university education shall be free for poor and working class students. Other than the announcement being absolutely unfeasible, since we are so broke, thanks to him and his Gupta Colonial masters.

There are no jobs in South Africa, even for graduates.

With over 3.5 million unemployed youth, only 170 000 of them are graduates. At this rate, we are hastily entering the stage where a South African university degree, just like the Zimbabwean Dollar, will be a worthless piece of paper, glittered with vain and pompous proclamations.

It will not even be able to buy you a single grain of dirty white rice. Much less get you a job as a janitor at a local city library; because you will be competing with PHD graduates waiting in line for the same job.

Almost like the recently released fantasy by Basic Minister of Education, Angie Motsheka, that the 2017 Matric pass rate is 75.1%. When in fact it is a mere 37%.

In 2015, over 40% of Grade 10 learners either failed or were derailed as South African trains tend to do nowadays. While over 47% of [enrolled] Matriculants dropped out before writing their 2017 final exams. Thus, the number produced by the Department is erroneously not reflective of this depressing reality.

Regardless of what discredited race-gluttons [whose primary purpose in life is to chase the very evasive ghosts of White Privilege, Decolonisation, Land-grabbing and White Monopoly Capital] say. The ANC, via its unfailing black majority vote, not only fatefully failed [mostly poor, uneducated and illiterate] black people.

It also failed to use education as a tool to create a [black] educated class that is effectively able to create product, [national] wealth and jobs. Instead of being educated butlers with good English.

The so-called black business class we have today is mostly made-up of parochial, shortsighted, floral shirts and shiny suit-wearing, street-hustle contractors who get huge tenders from the ANC government just to distribute free sanitary towels to rural schools.

Or to build futile RDP houses that have to be rebuilt twice before being open for owners to live in them.

If not, then through political connections and narrow BEE privileges, they sit as executive shareholders on boards for white-owned companies. Just like Cyril Ramaphosa did with his Shanduka Group and their stake in the [now declining] platinum mining giant, Lonmin.

Perhaps, only after we have successfully destroyed all that is left to sustain South Africa, like Mugabe did with his suicidal socialist [and racist] policies. Will we realise that in order to rebuild a truly prosperous South Africa, we will need to reverse everything the ANC has done, particularly with education.

We will also need to begin by yielding a focus on producing more artisans, mechanics, technicians, plumbers, manufacturers and engineers. These skills do not require expensive university education, but [currently underfunded] Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET).

With an additional socio-economic focus that is anchored on investment in manufacturing, and free-market based capitalism.

This is how countries like Germany, Japan, Singapore and even China continue to make everything the world [including South Africa] consumes. From cars, home appliances, clothing, computers, smart phones and even African dashikis!

Not everyone has as a glorified Life Orientation [Sociology or Social Justice] degree in China or South Korea. They can show you how to make a shoe or produce a brand new car battery.

This is the direction South Africa desperately needs.

Yet, as long as we are led by the ANC, we will never see prosperity. What else can we expect from a useless, failing ANC-driven Post-1994 South African Education?

© 2018 Dumisa Mbuwa
All rights reserved.

Tuesday, March 6, 2018

Black Advancement - A couple of points to consider

'Black Advancement Hinges on White Handouts?’
Mr. Zamani Xaba, this opinion piece is a reply to your statement that white 'racist attitudes' towards blacks are what have largely resulted in a floundering black African society that has lost its way.
You seem to be implying that people who are reluctant to give up their land, jobs or property are racist? This is unreasonable. Please don't fall into that trap. Just because they are trying to preserve their standard of living & property, does not make them racist, even if you feel they 'had it easy' under apartheid.

What is very misguided is our people believing that 'taking' what the minorities have will correct the imbalances long term.
A couple of points to consider:
1) The whites and other minorities are taking their assets overseas at an unprecedented rate, along with their support structure of investors...time is pretty much gone to 'take' their majority assets, and even then there is not enough to sustain our people.
2) Why do we want their assets anyway - it is only a temporary thing. Our clear objective should be for acquiring knowledge & education - something we can build into our society, and perpetuate. This will truly help us sustain and grow long term. Remember, there is no colour to knowledge, so why do we seem reluctant to acquire it unless we are somehow prejudice?
3) Why are we not putting more focus on increasing levels of education for mission critical career sectors? We need a revamped educational program that creates a well balanced society of not only academics, but engineers, scientists, data entry clerks, artisans, technicians, construction workers etc This will contribute directly to our knowledge base, and build our qualifications as a workforce with breadth & depth, and a technology leader. Where is the construction of our own robust institutions - we are doing some of this, but the vacuum the ANC has created in institutional-support for Our People is horrifyingly absent. Of course the ANC are an institution themselves, serving ONLY themselves at the expense of the millions of disadvantaged people. And they do this without losing any sleep, while expectant mothers die daily in disgusting hospitals, and the quality of our care for the aged is bordering on a crime on humanity. And you are worried about white attitudes? How is this going to help our hospitals?
Where is the plan for the re-emergence of South Africa as a center of inspired innovation? The ANC would rather focus on creating racial issues than tackling real challenges like this.
Taking land, or taking jobs, or taking taxes from a diminishing minority is short-sighted, and destined for failure.
It's funny when you look at the excessive wealth of the black elite, and how we DO NOT focus on taking their fair share of the taxes to help rebuild our country. We let them get away with hoarding millions of rands of ill-gotten wealth.
Also VERY SAD is how the black elite revel at deepening the class divide. They PLAN to keep the impoverished uneducated, and in debt, and prolong their pain so that they can keep capitalizing on it, all whilst they divert the resentment towards minorities & foreign entities.
Can the minorities help us more than they currently are? Of course. But many of them are simply trying to figure out how to get out of this country, or at least how to get their children out. They essentially are focusing on survival for themselves, and creating an exit plan for their next generations. The People who want to stay (like farmers) - we turn a blind eye to the farm murders, hoping the problem just goes away. The unfettered crime rates that are skyrocketing, that the ANC just 'shrugs off'. What label would you place on these complacent attitudes?
We seem obsessed with 'them' and 'others', while ignoring the building blocks necessary to ensure our productive futures are guaranteed, and not spent in refugee camps.
Is leveraging wealth from these fleeing minorities key to our long term advancement as a majority country? Of course not!
The fifty million (and growing) Africans in South Africa must dig out of this hole ourselves, in our own way, if we are to be a successful, self-sustaining and a healthy nation long into the future.
Let's insist that our leaders show us a specific plan on how this will be accomplished. If our leaders can't articulate this, we must find leaders who can.
Menzi Solomon Shange
====================================
[Join Mr. Shange at the FNB Joburg Art Fair, Sandton Convention Centre, 6 - 9 September 2018. Mr. Shange is an Afrocentric blogger, artist, activist, and business owner. He currently lives in Gauteng, and known as a fiercely outspoken advocate for the disadvantaged & marginalized citizens of Mzansi]

Monday, March 5, 2018

Farm attacks – an evil within

Farm attacks – an evil within
Nov 02, 2017
Image may contain: one or more people, night and outdoorClaims of kingpins in charge of well-planned crime operations with connections in government, highly trained hit squads using children to secure intelligence in farm attacks, occasional acts of intimidation to force land owners off their property and inhuman physical trauma inflicted on victims of such heinous crimes speak of the evil that characterises incidents committed against inhabitants of some of the remotest locations in South Africa.
Limpopo is no exception and when embarking on research into farm attacks University of Limpopo (UL) research assistant Cristopher Gumbi couldn’t possibly have been prepared for unearthing the sorrow bottled up in recollections of physical trauma shared by victims of such crimes. Shedding tears with survivors as they revisited the horrors of the past, he got a glimpse of a form of crime that threatens food security and, in turn, the economy of the country.
His findings were consolidated in a 117-page thesis for a Master of Arts degree from the Department of Criminology and Criminal Justice at UL, which he obtained in September this year. Gumbi’s investigation of the motivational factors for farm attacks and its consequential injurious phenomena looks into such crimes committed in parts of Limpopo and Mpumalanga between 2005 and 2015, bringing him into contact with 23 individuals and groupings who have all been survivors.
Before getting started with the interview Gumbi pointed at his predominantly monotone outfit in solidarity with scores of South Africans commemorating Black Monday, the countrywide action commemorating lives lost in farm attacks and survivors thereof.
From the study the reader gets varying perspectives of the situation as Gumbi delves into a decade of attacks through conversations with survivors from both genders, who varied in age from 38 to 88 years.
Harrowing accounts made him question, among others, the need for inflicting physical trauma upon victims during the orchestration of attacks, he remarked during the interview. “The violent nature of attacks is amply demonstrated by such actions as beatings, tying victims down with cable ties, threats of burning victims with hot water or poisoning them and shooting at first sight,” he notes in his study.
Without exception all respondents stated that attacks which occurred on their farms were well-planned, mentions Gumbi. “There is a clear indication that attackers conduct thorough surveillance of their target and surroundings before they pounce. This shows the high amount of intelligence and patience they put in, in making sure their plan succeeds.” He quotes a victim who stated that the assailants were picked-up by a vehicle after the attack. “This confirms the idea of a hit squad and a getaway car as a form of organised attack,” he states.
He further writes that all of the surviving victims mentioned that the attacks against them were linked to a crime syndicate, with the chief aim of robbing farmers of their money, valuables and weapons in order to fund their operations. In one instance he quotes a victim saying “One of the attackers informed my son that he is part of a crime syndicate and that they cannot remain in custody… These cell groups have kingpins in every town who use kids for stealing because the kids cannot be prosecuted… This is a well-planned operation involving Police, public prosecutors, judges, magistrates to high ranking officials of the government…”
Attackers with military training
Some of the victims maintained the belief that their attackers were a mix of South African and Zimbabwean with military training, according to the information contained in the study. In one incident a victim recalled that the attackers collected all spent cartridges on the scene. In another attack the assailants allegedly ran more than 4 km while carrying rifles to their getaway vehicle and changed clothes in order for them not to be recognised. Gumbi reaches the conclusion that an attack on a farmstead from four sides during one such incident, which resulted in the farmer being shot in the head, indicated a form of formal training on the part of the assailants.
In 47% of the cases money and jewellery were not targeted while 65% of the respondents stated that their attackers were not very interested in other items but their weapons. What the researcher had established though, was that attackers always knew the arrangement of the targeted farmsteads, where the safes were and the weapons kept. It led to the inference that the attacks should have been orchestrated with the help of insiders, who allegedly included teens living on farms.
Attacks believed to be form of intimidation
According to Gumbi’s research 78% of the respondents who reported farm attacks related a form of intimidation, aimed at driving farmers off their land. A female victim informed him that she had believed the attack on her farm was a form of intimidation, because the attackers never stole anything but just started firing through the windows of the house without prior warning. “More than 60 shots were fired. My husband shot back with a .38 revolver. He (name withheld) tossed (the) phone to me to call for help. They shot him (name withheld) in the head. They never came inside. The attackers shouted that they will kill all…”
A farmer who reported that he was attacked by twelve men informed the researcher that one drew a gun and started shooting. “When asked what their primary objective of attacking the farm was, they responded that it was not about cattle, money, guns or jewellery, but about taking control of the farm.”
Thirty-nine per cent of the respondents stated that they knew the attackers. A respondent who was attacked twice, in 2007 and 2014, said his wife knew one of the attackers because she recognised his voice during the initial attack.
Gumbi quoted survivors who were asked whether farms with poor security were singled out for attacks as saying “Poor security is not a contributing factor; it is all about brutal revenge and financial purposes” and “I don’t think poor security is the point here. These attacks are orchestrated by some leader somewhere who wants to drive farmers off their land.”
Gumbi further remarks that farmers do not feel that they are receiving the necessary service delivery from the South African Police Service. From the responses it is clear that the Police are not doing enough to assist the farmers during and after an attack, he writes. “Negligence and dereliction of duties are evident from the responses of respondents. Serious allegations concerning negligence with firearms raise concerns.”
Farm attacks need to be addressed holistically hence, the researcher concedes, more role players such as all government departments and non-profit organisations need to play a more active role in improving security on farms to protect food security.
Gumbi points out that unless security on farms is made a national priority, farm attacks will continue to increase. He recommends that it gets prioritised and discussed as part of South Africa’s national agenda, particularly in Parliament. He also recommends that racial stereotypes in farming urgently get addressed. “The South African justice system needs to recognise farm attacks as a criminal charge of its own with a strict mandatory minimum sentence applied; this will serve as a form of deterrence to attackers.”
Gumbi expresses great concern over farm attacks in South Africa not being given the necessary attention by the government, considering the effects such crimes have on the economy and the well-being of victims, families and communities.
According to him South Africa has the responsibility to view farm attacks as a violation of human rights and a threat to the country’s economy and food security. “The rural farming community contributes substantially to the growth and development of the South African economy.”

Land expropriation is anti-black

Sihle Ngobese
Much to my disappointment, the South African Parliament passed a motion by the Economic Freedom Fighters (EFF) to endorse the expropriation of land without compensation.
Essentially, all political parties, except for the Democratic Alliance (DA) and one or two smaller others, voted in favour of a policy that gives government the power to seize land and property rights from individuals and families.

The argument put forward by the supporters of this policy is, of course, centred on the historical dispossession of many black South Africans of their property rights and land; first under colonial rule, then through racist apartheid legislation.
Let me be clear from the outset: the act of redressing this legacy by implementing a rational and legal process of land restitution is wholly justified. Indeed, I am in full support of a rational and moral process, founded on the rule-of-law and due process, for assessing valid land claims.
If the claim is proven to be valid through an evidence-driven process, then the beneficiary must have the option of reclaiming the land or accepting financial compensation for their loss. In the same breath, the individual set to give back the land should also be compensated for their loss, provided they didn't use any measure of force to illegally claim that land.
Ultimately, it was the State, whether through the guise of colonialism or apartheid that was responsible for the dispossession of citizens in the first place. It is that same State today (albeit governed by a democratically elected party) which must act to redress its past mistakes and actions.
My approach is a just and sound policy, as where all parties find mediation and resolution.
This is why I cannot bring myself to agree with the EFF approach of land expropriation, which disturbingly calls for complete state ownership of all land.
Julius Malema is a forked-tongue politician. At Parliament's podium and at his public rallies he shouts that the land "must be returned to our people". He does not, however, tell the public, and specifically the black people he claims to trade for, that his approach entails dispossessing them too of whatever meagre property they have.
On this matter the record of history is absolutely crystal clear: the State owning something on behalf of the people does not translate to the people owning or enjoying the utility of that good.
It is this intellectual dishonesty and effort to undermine the intent and spirit of section 25 of the Constitution which makes the EFF very dangerous. While Malema talks of targeting "white land thieves" to "benefit landless blacks", in reality the EFF is giving government the power to steal property from families, rich and poor.
I've yet to get an answer from Malema and his acolytes on how it is "pro-black" to demand that blacks become landless and permanent renters of land from the State, as is proposed in Point 2 of the EFF Land Policy.
It would seem that land expropriation without compensation and the State owning all land is a crude attempt by socialists to take away land from everybody, including black people. This policy is nothing short of theft and is the stuff of the economically illiterate.
A government owning land on behalf of blacks (or any citizen really), as is EFF policy, is immoral and patronising. It is anti-black and anti-poor!
Sadly, we've seen this show before on the continent, from Julius Nyerere's disastrous Ujamaa policy in the 1960s, to Idi Amin's expropriation without compensation of mostly Indian merchants land and businesses in 1972, to the collapse of our Zimbabwean neighbours after the wave of land grabs unleashed by Robert Mugabe and his ZANU-PF in the early 2000s.
Land Expropriation without compensation and the socialism which underpins it has been the killer of African aspirations for prosperity and development.
Most depressingly, and what the politicians don't tell you, is that these measures kill the aspirations of black families looking to OWN land and have property rights, just as the colonialist and apartheid systems did.
There is nothing to celebrate here. Troubled times lay ahead for us South Africans, as our liberty is at stake. For far too long South Africans of all races have had to give up one freedom and liberty after another, at the hands of statist and socialist politicians.
Government should be a tool for empowering families and communities and enhancing their liberty, not making them dependents. I don't see how taking our land without compensation and making us renters of the land of our birth is pro-South Africa, do you?
- Ngobese is spokesperson for the Western Cape department of social development. He writes in his personal capacity. Follow him on Twitter: @BigDaddyLiberty
Disclaimer: News24 encourages freedom of speech and the expression of diverse views. The views of columnists published on News24 are therefore their own and do not necessarily represent the views of News24.

Why The Poor Should be Worried ~ Expropriation of Land

Why The Poor Should be Worried ~ Expropriation of Land 🦃🐖🐃🏞🏜

Expropriation without compensation represents a profound danger for South Africa's immediate and long-term economic future


~ The "necessity of the state being a custodian of all South African land". This is a "state" that has proven to not having any skill; is very clumsy and incompetent. Consisting of an 'employment programme' based on "nepotism", patronage, cronyism" of employing select families and friends.

This 'state' doesn't have a clue on the meaning of the words "merit" and "professionalism" and "qualifications". This 'state' is just managed by the most bungling, blundering, bumbling, and unproductive,unsuccessful, ineffectual,
inadequate, inferior, wanting and not up to scratch. They just fumble on.

This resolution is sponsored by one of the most corrupt, immoral, uncaring and unprincipled young so-called leader, who
was ever produced by South Africa.

He became a +R200 multi-millionaire at
age 32, from money he defrauded from the Limpopo government. His career is marked by a string of corrupt activities in the ANCYL, the NYDA and the EFF. There is a deep irony here.

The resolution is quite correct to refer to South Africa's history and the abuse of black people's property rights. He is a champion of just doing that and I have written extensively on his corrupt escapades.

His saving grace is "rubble rousing", at which he is a 'master' ~ trashing, vandalising, looting, burning government and private property
are his speciality. The question is, how does
he manage to achieve all of these things so puplicly and brazenly?

The answer is simple, he had protection from high up in government, from non other than Ubaba ka Duduzane. They created this elaborate 'perception' of being at war with
each other, but nothing is further from the truth.

He enjoyed the same protection U Baba got from #Abrams_NPA_783_charges. How is his new reform policy going to improve the lives of its beneficiaries, and enhances the economy as whole.

Well, it is not. The young man already has 2 farms and a number of properties under his belt. He is not interested in how it is going to improve the lives of the poor, but only his own life, that of his family and cronies. He only says "the poor" in public.

This resolution rests on a flawed diagnosis of the problems facing South Africa's land reform efforts, and proposes reckless and counterproductive responses.

First, its evidence is questionable. While there is consensus that the land reform programme is not performing well, the figures it purports to draw from the land audit – 'black people own less than 2% of rural land, and less that 7% of urban land' with 'black' referring to African' ~ are incorrect.

These numbers refer only to registered and titled properties held by individual owners.
The audit was unable to assign racial identity to around two thirds of the country's land.

This was held by companies and trusts, and a large portion belonged to the 'state' or is
'state trust land'.

Much 'state' land is in fact land in the former homelands, or land acquired for 'beneficiaries', but whose title has not been transferred to them. Lunch Bar! That wasn't the plan of government officials, Juju himself got his lands through this process.

Current land redistribution policy is to retain state ownership of land and to lease it to tenants. Remember, the 'state' is now 'black'. Small wonder that 'black' ownership of land remains modest, they claim. The 'state' doesn't include itself in this category of 'owners'.

Truth be told, some 46% of agricultural potential ~ land with fertile soil and good water sources, for example, mostly in the eastern parts of the country ~ is in the hands of government and historically disadvantaged individuals.

"other constraints, including increasing evidence of corruption by officials, the diversion of the land reform budget to elites, lack of political will, and lack of training and capacity have proved more serious stumbling blocks to land reform" says the audit report.

The Constitution in fact affords the state considerable latitude in achieving such goals. As the eminent agricultural economist, the late Dr Hans Binswanger-Mkhize, once wrote:

"This constitutional and policy framework is one of the most favourable in the world for successfully and rapidly implementing land reform."

The cheapening of South Africa's founding
law for populist political ends should greatly concern the country's constitutionalists.

Attacking Section 25 would undermine the very concept of property rights ~ not just those in land. It would render all property, or all people, vulnerable to an intrusive state and its officials: mines, factories, houses, artworks.

It should be borne in mind that the poor could be especially hard hit ~ there are numerous examples across the world of poor people with weak property rights being deprived of their property, land, livestock, houses and so on, by their governments in the name of development.

Beyond enabling the state to seize property without compensation, it suggests what amounts to wholesale nationalisation of South Africa's land resources. For the state to take 'custodianship' of all land would effectively be to end private ownership in land.

It should be understood that no one ~ land baron or smallholder, black or white ~ would really own anything. All would be at the mercy of the state. Do you think Juju would allow his 2 farms to be included in this situation?

Probably the most important problem with this resolution. It avoids any reference to economic considerations. Even Cyril Ramaphosa's assurances that expropriation without compensation will not compromise agricultural output and food security are absent.

Expropriation without compensation ~ as officials in the banking industry have warned ~ will undermine the capital base of agriculture. The risks associated with large volumes of credit to enable production are likely to make financial institutions exit the sector.

Government cannot match these financing requirements, farm debt stands at over
R160 billion at present.

This implies a predictable decline in production. The damage would not be limited to job losses, declining taxes and export receipts, and the disruption of value chains.

It would likely prove destabilising to the country as shortages become the norm and food price inflation takes off. Venezuela and Sudan have recently provided vivid illustrations of the dire consequences of compromised food security.

It is unlikely that South Africa would be able to avoid further downgrades or be able to attract much investment. Interactions with business people ~ foreign and domestic ~ has shown a deep concern about the possibility of this becoming official policy.

To reiterate: that the success of land reform policy should be measured by the extent to which it improves the lives of its beneficiaries, and enhances the economy as whole.

The EFF's reported resolution would do the just the opposit, and the country might end up being owned by the likes of foreigners like,

Lord Robin Renwick and his London cronies.

#asblif_rules

(Source : Terence Corrigan ~ Project Manager at the SA Institute of Race Relations (IRR) / News24)

Thursday, March 1, 2018

Black lies about land settlement in South Africa

Here is the article link ...

https://sa-news.com/the-4-black-lies-about-land-in-south-africa-bantu-black-africans-do-not-have-default-right-to-land/comment-page-1/

In fact, there were stable White communities in the South African interior before the founding of most of the Latin American republics. The first West European arrivals at the Cape antedated the colonization of Australia (1788) and New Zealand (1790) by 136 and 138 years respectively. The white community was also economically settled on unoccupied or negotiated land before the most and major black tribes even crossed the modern day borders of South Africa.